Many folks would like to see us back on the Moon and developing its resources.

Wednesday, March 17, 2010

Was that a Right Hand thread or a Left Hand thread, or did you cross thread?
Did you hook up the fuel line to the in-port or the drain-port?
- LRK -

Murphy's law ---
Murphy's law is an adage or epigram that is typically stated as:
"Anything that can go wrong will go wrong".

It is used as either a purely sarcastic musing that things always go wrong, or, less frequently, a reflection of the mathematical idea that, given a sufficiently long time, an event which is possible
(non-zero probability) will almost surely take place. Although, in this case, emphasis is put on the possible bad occurrences.

Sometimes we complain about the cost of human rating a rocket.
I wonder if we take into account just how hard it is to make something mechanical work as designed, 100% of the time?
- LRK -

I have been reading a number of books recently, some factual about the Moon, some fiction.
Some of you have made suggestions about what might be of interest The stack of books by Robert A. Heinlein is rising with more coming in the mail, but there are others that are of interest as well.

The book "Prey" by Michael Crichton was mentioned and I have had it on a book shelf for some time but had not read.
I picked it up today and started reading about the nanotechnology that goes bad. This was copyrighted in 2002.
- LRK -

In the introduction, Michael Crichton makes the comment, "The total system we call the biosphere is so complicated that we cannot know in advance the consequences of anything we do." He has footnote 1' to that statement that starts out ---

1. This uncertainty is characteristic of all complex systems, including man-made systems. After the U.S. stock market dropped 22 percent in one day in October 1987, new rules were implemented to prevent such precipitate declines. But there was no way to know in advance whether the rules would increase stability, or make things worse. ...

Well the stock market has had some fluctuations since, right? Ummm, I think some regulations were done away with also.
- LRK -

On the next page (x) Michael Crichton makes another observation.

We think we know what we are doing. We have always thought so. We never seem to acknowledge that we have been wrong in the past, and so might be wrong in the future. Instead, each generation writes off earlier errors as the result of bad thinking by less able minds---and then confidently embarks on fresh errors of its own. ....

This set me to thinking. When I first went on active duty in the Navy I was given a task to fix all the gasoline combustion nose heaters in the S2F airplanes we were using. I remember connecting the fuel line up after checking out a heater for cracks. When I flipped the heater switch, I ported fuel out the drain line. The two hose connections were next to each other and the same size fittings with no special color coding. No big deal, just changed them around but not a good thing to spill gasoline on the cement below.
- LRK -

I remember working with the data from the Lunar Prospector mission where I was looking at a data stream that was about five minutes old. My PC looked at a file of data that had been transferred to a Digital Corporation Micro VAX from the secure network the operators looked at.
(no one wanted my PC anywhere near their workstation data.) I came in one morning and the hexadecimal display of a portion of the data stream was fixed, not changing.

Normally the numbers and letters would be different as different data came in. I asked the operators if anything was wrong. Nothing noted, until they looked at their data stream. Frozen, not changing. After they consulted with the Primary Investigators it was decided to send commands to Lunar Prospector to reset the buffer counters. It seems that the counter could not handle the size of the count for how long the spacecraft had been running. The data had been frozen about 3 hours. I seem to remember this happened again during the mission but now they knew what was wrong.

No big deal, you just looked at my 5 minute old web site data repeated every 5 minutes for the time that no new data arrived. The scientists missed some data but that happened if there was a break in coverage from the Deep Space Network. The mission was a year and a half, so the Moon was seen many times and data averaged.

When you think that ten fingers is enough to count the number of tick marks and you find you need your toes also, problems can arise. It is hard to think of everything, but gets to be more important if you have humans on board.
- LRK -

I did programing for a company that wanted to test gas control valves for the etchers that are used to make your integrated circuits. I wrote some code that I thought worked just fine. My supervisor would test it and make the code malfunction. I had not checked for humans entering commands in wrong ways, or out of sequence or just wrong numbers. You had to think of all the ways entries could be done wrong and help them make the correct entries or not allow wrong ones. It was important the the control valves worked properly or corrosive gases could make a mess of your etch job. If you took the valves out of the system when they didn't work correctly, they would often become corroded by exposure to air after having corrosive gasses in them. It was to the buyers advantage to be able to test the valves in clean nitrogen before putting them to work with the real stuff.
- LRK -

We went to the Moon and the Astronauts had to enter numbers in the proper sequence with the correct values or you weren't going to land on the Moon in a pleasant way. Entries were read back and checked by ground personnel. Still, leaving some equipment on that wasn't needed can cause a problem.
- LRK -

DSKY interface
Apollo computer DSKY user interface unit.
LM DSKY interface diagram.

The user interface to the AGC was the DSKY, standing for display and keyboard and usually pronounced dis-key. It had an array of indicator lights, numeric displays and a calculator-style keyboard. Commands were entered numerically, as two-digit numbers: Verb, and Noun. Verb described the type of action to be performed and Noun specified which data was affected by the action specified by the Verb command.


PGNCS generated unanticipated warnings during Apollo 11's lunar descent, with the AGC showing a 1201 alarm ("Executive overflow - no vacant areas") and a 1202 alarm ("Executive overflow - no core sets").[5] In both cases these alarms were caused by the AGC running out of resources, due to the rendezvous radar, which had been left on during the descent, requesting cycles from the AGC via an interrupt. When the separate landing radar acquired the lunar surface and the AGC began processing this data too, these overflow errors aborted the computer's current task, but the frequency of radar data still meant the abort signals were being sent at too great a rate for the CPU to cope.[6]

My dad, as a school teacher, would take summer classes to improve his skills. He took a math class at the University of Washington in Seattle Washington. There was only one test for the class and only one problem. It was written on the black board. (they had black chalk boards back then) Dad copied the problem, and worked correctly the problem he copied. The teacher gave him a 'C' for the class.

When dad asked why the 'C' the instructor told him he should have flunked him. It was an algebra problem and dad had copied an exponent wrong. Never mind that he worked his
problem correctly, the instructor said that this was an Engineering Class and copying the data wrong and using that data to make a bridge, does not count if the bridge does not cover the span.

Using the wrong units of measurement does not make for a correct spacecraft orbit if one writes data in metric and someone else thinks it is in English units.
- LRK -

NASA Advisors Explain Mars Mission Failures to a Concerned Congress
Keith Cowing
Wednesday, April 12, 2000

At the core of the Committee's concerns was the failure of the Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) mission because of simple metric Vs English units conversions and its subsequent crash on Mars; the loss of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) apparently due to one bad line of software and its crash on Mars; and the disappearance of the twin DS-2 probes which were simply not ready for launch in the first place.

What is that I hear hissing?
- LRK -

Valve problem threatens to delay April shuttle launch
Posted: March 13, 2010

Engineers are troubleshooting the apparent failure of a helium isolation valve in the shuttle Discovery's right-side orbital maneuvering system rocket pod, officials said Saturday. If the problem cannot be resolved at the pad - and sources said the engineering options are limited - NASA could be forced to haul the shuttle back to its hangar for repairs, delaying a planned April 5 launch.


And then there were those WWII Gremlins, but that might have been before your time.
- LRK -


Rob Arndt
Nov 2 2008, 2:36 pm

Newsgroups: rec.aviation.military
From: Rob Arndt
Date: Sun, 2 Nov 2008 13:36:10 -0800 (PST)
Local: Sun, Nov 2 2008 2:36 pm
Subject: WW2 "Gremlins" Originated from Spitfire Pilots???

WW II aircrew were telling stories about them as early as the 1940's, and Ronald Dahl, an ex-RAF-pilot, wrote "The Gremlins," a fairy tale about the hazards of combat flying, in 1942. The book was published by Walt Disney and serialized in Cosmopolitan. Disney wanted to do a movie on the book that even Eleanor Roosevelt read to her grandchildren, but could not figure out how to make creatures who destroyed Allied aircraft lovable.

A Poem from WWII known to some English PRU pilots who first encountered the Gremlins that caused many problems for flight crews in the war. (Gremlins were alleged to be mischievous, elf-like beings that were the "real" cause of engine trouble and other mechanical difficulties):

This is the tale of the Gremlins
As told by the PRU
At Benson and Wick and St Eval-
And believe me, you slobs, it's true.


Have a great day and I hope the Gremlins don't bite you.

Thanks for looking up with me.
- LRK -

Web Site:
RSS link:
The Gremlins
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Gremlins is a children's book, written by Roald Dahl and published in 1943. It was Dahl's first children's book, and was written for Walt Disney, optioned for a film that was never made, in part because no one could establish exactly who owned the word "gremlin" and in part because they could not figure out how to make creatures who destroyed Allied aircraft lovable enough for a cartoon. On 25 September 2006, a reprinted edition of the book was released by Dark Horse Comics.

The story concerns mischievous little mythical creatures, the Gremlins of the title, that were often used by Royal Air Force pilots as an explanation for mid-air mechanical troubles and mishaps. In Dahl's book, the gremlins' motivation for sabotaging British planes is the destruction of their home, a forest, which was flattened to make way for an aircraft factory. The principal character in the book, Gus, has his plane destroyed over the English Channel by a gremlin, but is able to convince the gremlin as they parachute into the water that they should join forces against a common enemy—Hitler and the Nazis—rather than fight each other. Eventually, the gremlins are re-trained by the Royal Air Force to help repair, rather than sabotage, aircraft, and they also help restore Gus to active flight status after a particularly severe crash. (This was a kind of autobiographical reference for Dahl, who had flown as a pilot in the RAF, and was barred from flying after serious injuries sustained in a crash landing in Libya. He later returned to flying.) The book also contains picturesque details about the ordinary lives of gremlins: baby gremlins, for instance, are known as widgets, and females as fifinellas, a name taken from the great "flying" filly racehorse Fifinella, who won both the Epsom Derby and Epsom Oaks in 1916, the year Dahl was born.




Saturday, March 13, 2010

The Man Who Sold the Moon

The Man Who Sold the Moon

I just finished reading the story, "The Man Who Sold the Moon" by Robert A. Heinlein as collected in his book "THE PAST THROUGH TOMORROW."
(I have ordered a used book of "The Man Who Sold the Moon," that has some other stories as well - reading some of Heinlein's books)
- LRK -

Heinlein's predictions of the future have not all come true. Still, many of them could if we wanted them to, as the technology is here. What we might need is someone like D. D. Harriman, who wants desperately to go to the Moon and it isn't happening because the nuclear power sources are being used for more Earthly requirements. He sets up the necessary marketing schemes to get the money and the story unfolds.
- LRK -


The Man Who Sold the Moon is a science fiction novella by Robert A. Heinlein written in 1949 and published in 1950, part of his "Future History" of stories sharing a common background from "Life-Line" to "Da Capo". This story, which has the sequel "Requiem", covered events around a fictional first moon-landing, in 1978. It follows the story "Blowups Happen" in the Future History chronology. In that story, space flight was supposedly assured by a new nuclear fuel produced in an orbiting reactor. In this episode the reactor has been destroyed and the nuclear rocket has been found to be a dead-end.

The Man Who Sold the Moon follows the machinations of Delos D. Harriman, "the first of the new robber barons," who is determined to reach and control the Moon. The story centers on Harriman's wheelings and dealings to accomplish his dream. "I," he tells his business partner, "would cheat, lie, steal, beg, bribe — do anything to accomplish what we have accomplished". Harriman's determination is rooted in his childhood desire to travel to the moon himself, but the responsibilities of running his financial empire may make this dream impossible.


I am also continuing to look at the paintings of Robert McCall in his book, "The Art of Robert McCall: A Celebration of Our Future In Space"

The captions on the paintings of where he thought we would be in our use of space gave us hope for the future.
I am sorry to say that many of them have had their schedules slipped or put on hold.
What we were told would happen at such and such a time didn't materialize.
It makes for mixed emotions as I look at the paintings.

Like ----
Page 40.
(24" x 36", acrylic on canvas, 1991; collection of the artist)

NASA plans a new series of missions to the moon, beginning in the next decade with unmanned robot probes and culminating with manned missions by the year 2005. By 2010, NASA hopes to establish working lunar bases such as the one depicted here, to perform scientific and industrial missions. (Courtesy NASA)

Page 41.
(30" x 44", acrylic on canvas, 1986; collection of the artist)

Between the orbits of the Earth and the moon are areas called "libration points" or "Lagrange points," where the gravitational pulls of the two worlds cancel each other out. Here, spacecraft require less energy to construct and launch. In this painting, astronauts service a transfer vehicle bound for Mars at a spaceport located at Libration Point 1.

Page 42.
(24" x 36", acrylic on canvas, 1991; collection of the artist)

Survival on the moon will require the basic materials needed to sustain life: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, to produce air, water, and organic materials. The expense of lifting such materials out of Earth's gravity well will drive the effort to mine these compounds on the moon itself.

The vehicle in the foreground is a "lunar combine," powered by a solar antenna, which tills the fine lunar dust, forcing it into an extracting chamber where gases are separated from silicon and other minerals. Gas cylinders are stored to the left. To the right is a vast "solar farm: beaming microwave energy back to Earth. (Courtesy NASA)


On Paul D. Spudis blog "The Once and Future Moon", he has some biting remarks about where it looks like we are at the moment. Others in the comments suggest looking at what is being proposed in the budget. I just hope we see something positive happen in developing space before I am 100 years old.
(or will I need to take some longevity pills?)
- LRK -

March 11, 2010
Stuck in Transit – Unchaining Ourselves From the Rocket Equation

Last fall, after much anticipation, the Augustine Committee presented us with their assessment of the future of space exploration. Its basic conclusion was that at currently envisioned budgets, the Program of Record (a.k.a. ESAS, Project Constellation) would not get us back to the Moon before many decades had passed, if then. This meme has been picked up by many in the space community to the point where is it now cliché to claim that we don’t have enough money to do anything in space. Hence, the direction proposed in the new budget takes NASA out of the space transportation business entirely, freeing up their budget to focus on technology development, and contracting with commercial providers to create access to low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS).


Simply put, our space objectives need to be – arrive, survive and thrive. To do that, the goal must be stated, mapped out and achieved before setting out to the next destination. A sustainable, expandable transportation system in space can be devised by using the resources we find in space. We will learn how (and if) we can do this on our Moon. Once we don’t have to haul everything with us from the Earth, costs become lower. When you don’t have to use 90% of your travel budget just to get out of town, a lot more people can take the trip. Before you know it, you have a space-based economy.


Since commercial flights to the ISS are in the news, you might want to follow Falcon 9 rocket tests and launch preparations at Spaceflight Now.
- LRK -

Rocket: Falcon 9
Payload: Dragon
Date: April 12, 2010
Window: 11 a.m.-3 p.m. EDT
Site: SLC-40, Cape Canaveral, Florida
- LRK -

This was 3/13/10 - LRK -
Mission Status Center

By Stephen Clark

Welcome to Spaceflight Now's live coverage of the inaugural Falcon 9 rocket launching a Dragon test unit on a demonstration flight. Text updates will appear automatically; there is no need to reload the page. Follow us on Twitter.

2029 GMT (3:29 p.m. EST)
SpaceX released the following statement this afternoon:

"Today, SpaceX successfully completed a test firing of the inaugural Falcon 9 launch vehicle at Space Launch Complex 40 located at Cape Canaveral. Following a nominal terminal countdown, the launch sequencer commanded ignition of all 9 Merlin first stage engines for a period of 3.5 seconds.

"Just prior to engine ignition, the pad water deluge system was activated providing acoustic suppression to keep vibration levels within acceptable limits. The test validated the launch pad propellant and pneumatic systems as well as the ground and flight control software that controls pad and launch vehicle configurations. The completion of a successful static fire is the latest milestone on the path to first flight of the Falcon 9 which will carry a Dragon spacecraft qualification unit to orbit."


And we shall see, what we shall see, next in April 2010.
- LRK -


Falcon 9's launch scheduled for 12 April, 2010.
President Obama to Host Space Conference in Florida (April 15)
April 19, 2010 "A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket will launch the U.S. military's X-37B, a prototype space plane also called the Orbital Test Vehicle."
OTV built by Boeing for the Air Force and DARPA.


So it has been said, but then things change, get modified, dropped or are left to the mercy of the weather. (or, purse strings lose with coins spilling out)
A link below tracking such things.
- LRK -


March 11, 2010 - A regularly updated listing of planned missions from spaceports around the globe. Dates and times are given in Greenwich Mean Time. "NET" stands for no earlier than. "TBD" means to be determined. Recent updates appear in red type. Please send any corrections, additions or updates by e-mail to:


Back to reading what the future might have been. at least from those that had a vision.
- LRK -

Requiem - the short story -
Plot summary

The story centers around the lead character of "The Man Who Sold The Moon", Delos David Harriman. Harriman, a tycoon and latter-day robber baron, had always dreamed of going to the Moon, and had spent much of his career and resources making space flight a practical commercial enterprise. Unfortunately, his business partners prevented him from taking the early flights (as shown in the novella). Now an old man, Harriman has still not been to the Moon, a fact that frustrates him, since he lives in a world where space travel is so commonplace that carnivals have their own barnstorming spacecraft. No longer bound by his contractual obligations, he is now too old; he is unable to pass the medical examination needed for space travel.


Like D. D. Harriman, I probably could not pass the physical for a space flight to the Moon, if a space flight to the Moon, there would be. :-(

Thanks for looking up with me.
- LRK -

Web Site:
RSS link:

Have Space Suit—Will Travel is a science fiction novel for young readers by Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialised in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (August, September, October 1958) and published by Scribner's in hardcover in 1958 as the last of the Heinlein juveniles.

Heinlein made good use of his engineering expertise to bring a sense of realism to the story; for a time during World War II, he was a civilian aeronautics engineer working at a laboratory where pressure suits were developed for use at high altitudes.

Have Space Suit—Will Travel was nominated for a Hugo Award in 1959.[1]


Clifford "Kip" Russell, a bright high school senior with an eccentric father, enters an advertising jingle writing contest for Skyway Soap, hoping to win an all-expenses-paid trip to the Moon. He instead gets an obsolete, but genuine, used space suit. Though a few make fun of him, with the help of sympathetic townspeople, and using his own ingenuity and determination, Kip puts the suit (which he dubs "Oscar") back into working condition.

Kip wants to go into space; he reluctantly decides to return his space suit for a cash prize to help pay for college, but puts it on for one last walk. As he idly broadcasts on his radio, someone identifying herself as "Peewee" answers with a Mayday signal. He helps her home in on his location, and is shocked when a flying saucer lands practically on top of him. A young girl and an alien being (later identified asthe "Mother Thing") debark, but all three are quickly captured and taken to the Moon.




Thursday, March 11, 2010

The Art of Robert McCall: A Celebration of Our Future In Space

I just received a used copy of Robert McCall's book of his paintings that I recently ordered.
It is a joy looking at the future.

On page 6, a lead in to the description to the "Cosmic View", at the Smithsonian says,
"The mission to the moon placed humankind on the pathway to the stars."

I hope that proves to be true.

We are going to Washington D.C - Virgina at the end of the March and I hope we get to see some of Robert McCall's paintings at the Smithsonian.

Just inside the entrance to the National Air and Space Museum is a multi-story mural. In its center, a fully suited Apollo astronaut gazes out at museum-goers, lunar dust suspended in the air around his boots. To the astronaut’s left, is the artist’s swirling depiction of the Big Bang Theory on the creation of the universe. And to his right, is a lunar rover and the Apollo lunar lander, its gold foil glimmering.
The Space Mural - A Cosmic View, by Robert McCall. Image courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum.

I was just beginning to think that going to SPACE would be the Future.I would see.
Now there is some confusion as to what the path will be.
Just what will be funded is not clear.
Many stories are being debated.
We need to follow just what Congress will approve.
- LRK -

Lawmakers produce Bill to extend shuttle to 2015, utilize CxP, advance HLV
March 3rd, 2010 by Chris Bergin

Senator Kay Hutchison – in conjunction with Representatives Suzanne Kosmas and Bill Posey – has produced a 37 page Bill that proposes major refinements to NASA’s FY2011 proposal, and NASA’s forward plan.
The Bill is centered around a shuttle extension to 2015, in support of fully utilizing the International Space Station (ISS), along with saving elements of Constellation – such as Orion and a Heavy Lift Launcher (HLV).

And Senator Hutchison 's press release.
- LRK -


Recent Press Releases
Hutchison Introduces Bill to Close Gap in U.S. Spaceflight Keep Shuttle Operational or U.S. Forced to Rely on Russia, China to Reach Space Station Joe Brenckle - Republican Press Office 202-224-3991 Mar 03 2010

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas), Ranking Member on the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, today introduced legislation to close the gap in U.S. human space flight that will occur if the space shuttle is retired before the next generation of space vehicle is developed. Senator Hutchison’s bill would allow the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to extend the shuttle’s service as work continues on the next generation of American space vehicle. Companion legislation is expected to be introduced in the House of Representatives next week by Reps. Suzanne Kosmas (D-Florida) and Bill Posey (R-Florida).

Sen. Hutchison [R-TX], National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Rep. Kosmas [D-FL24], Rep. Posey [R-FL15], S. 3068: A bill to reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space...,

Here is the House of Representatives bill proposal to complement the Senate version that triggered the discussion.
- LRK -

This is your email update from

Mar 10, 2010 - Bill Action
Introduced: H.R. 4804: To reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Space Flight Activities, and for other purposes.
Rep. Suzanne Kosmas [D-FL24] introduced this bill. (You are seeing this event because you are tracking House Science and Technology, Introduced Legislation and Rep. Kosmas [D-FL24])


-- Kosmas and Posey Introduce Bill to Minimize Human Spaceflight Gap

"The Human Spaceflight Capability Assurance and Protection Act would extend use of the
International Space Station (ISS) through 2020, allow NASA to continue flying the Space Shuttle, and push to accelerate a next-generation NASA-developed space vehicle.
A companion bill has been introduced by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) in the U.S. Senate."


Here is Representative Kosmas web site post.
- LRK -
Kosmas and Posey Introduce Bill to Minimize Human Spaceflight Gap

Bipartisan Legislation Would Help Maintain U.S. Leadership in Space

(Washington, DC) – Today, Congresswoman Suzanne Kosmas (FL-24) and Congressman Bill Posey (FL-15) introduced legislation to maintain a robust human spaceflight program, minimize the spaceflight gap, and protect Space Coast jobs.

The Human Spaceflight Capability Assurance and Protection Act would extend use of the International Space Station (ISS) through 2020, allow NASA to continue flying the Space Shuttle, and push to accelerate a next-generation NASA-developed space vehicle. A companion bill has been introduced by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) in the U.S. Senate.

I will study Robert McCall's paintings and see what was the vision for the future and hope we find our way to space sooner rather than later.
Do you know the way?

I bought some paint.
Maybe I will have to create my own vision.
Larry Kellogg - Watch out for the corporate Lobsters that they don't grab your project. Have the eyes of a Panther.

Thanks for looking up with me.
- LRK -

Web Site:
RSS link:

Kosmas and Posey Introduce Bill to Minimize Human Spaceflight Gap
Kosmas and Posey Introduce Bill to Minimize Human Spaceflight Gap
Posey and Kosmas introduce House version of spaceflight gap bill




Monday, March 08, 2010


Back in June, 2004, Fabio Sau sent me a link to a survey on the POLITICAL FEASIBILITY OF A MOON BASE, which now is a stale link.

Fabio was attending the International Space University
and was doing an internship at the University of North Dakota.
I was looking over the 21 page copy I found in my boxes in the garage and thought the subject material would still be of interest, so I will share again what was being considered. We have seen politics at work in the present quest for space, and more to come. More to come. More to come. (bad needle.)
- LRK -

Here is what it covered:

This quick survey wanted to establish an order of importance among
a list of variables drawn on an extensive and exhaustive literature
review regarding the Political Feasibility of a Lunar Base.

You were asked to evaluate all the identified political variables
within three different historic epochs, that were considered relevant
for human space travel and settlement on the Moon.

the post-Apollo planning era (1964-1971);

the Space Exploration Initiative SEI period (1986-1991);

Moon (and Mars) in the current President Bush Space Vision (Jan 2004
to date) "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery".

Variables considered:

National Leadership and Prestige
(influence in the international arena as ability to lead other
Nations and capacity to spur international competition)

National Credibility
(National Government effectiveness and trust within a Country)

National Security and Military
(strategic and military reasons behind major political choices or
policy shifts in order to preserve freedom and territorial integrity
of a Nation and its allies)

(people able to reach key positions and to catch people imagination
and expectations)

Short Term Goal
(clear objectives and deadlines, within a decade time frame, by
Government and Congress)

Long Term Plan
(a more wide vision, beyond a decade, sustained by Government and Congress)

Historical Context
(where we come from and where we are going as society and as a Country)

Driving Ideologies
(strongest political parties and their influence on society and
people life style and choices, as well as partisanship within
democratic and not democratic institutions)

Presidential Power
(role and strategies played by the Executive branch and its bodies'
apparatus i.e. American OMB or Presidential advisory entities i.e.
Presidential Commissions or Space Council)

Technological Challenges
(from a technological point of view what we want to achieve today?)

Research and Development
(how are we working in order to meet these pressing technological challenges?)

Technology Transfer
(from whom and how we acquire and improve our knowledge)

Congressional Support
(effective advocacy from key leaders within House and Senate,
especially at Committee level)

Financial Commitment
(the degree of engagement a society as a whole is ready to pay and
invest for a given goal)

Managerial Credo
(leadership, accountability, trust, values, communications, teamwork,
dedication to Governmental or private organizations' goals)

International Cooperation
(cooperative agreements on Space effort among National Governments)

Organizational Capabilities
(ability to mobilize people and resources in a coordinated successful
effective manner)

Explore The Unknown
(ever since the inner human nature and instinct)

National Cultural Heritage
(the values, history and traditions cherished by the people of a Country)

Public Science Perception
(how science and its achievements are perceived by the general public)

Imagination and Expectations
(what people dream of, hope, and expect from the near term future)

Future Perception
(public expectations in the long term)

Risk Perception
(the amount of risk taking attitude that pervades a society)

(how they shape or portray the public opinion and perceptions regarding
science and technology)

Scientific Understanding
(the mainstream interpretation of the Universe by the scientific community)

(the positive consequences of our R&D efforts in our daily life)

Aerospace Industry
(role played by the main Government contractors)

Small Space Companies
(those who are trying to bypass the traditional Gov-Contractors
duopoly in Space)

Cost estimates
(costs evaluation for big science projects by governmental or not
governmental consultative organizations)

International Partnership
(Space effort ventures among multinational companies)

Economic Growth
(how it can affects policy and investment decisions at every level of
both society and government)

National Regulations
(how they affect the development of industrial and technological
sectors within an economy)

International Law
(how they influence the variegated and different national regulatory
environments i.e. obstacles such as art. II of the Outer Space Treaty
1967: no claim of national sovereignty)

Bureaucratic Inertia
(the congenital resistance of Gov agencies to transparency,
accessibility, change, and reform)

Bureaucracies Creation
(powerful tools for implementing national and, in a lesser degree,
international policies)


According to Dr. Eligar Sadeh, public policy formation in the United
States, and similarly in the other Countries, is a process that
involves a number of stages that include agenda-setting
(political legitimacy and feasibility),

policy formulation
(characterization of legitimate rationale factors of political
support and their enactment into law),

policy implementation
(involves R&D of the enabling technologies and their application),
and policy outcomes (i.e., scenarios) with the possibilities of
policy change over time (e.g., re-designs leading to re-formulation).


The survey was 21 pages when printed out and made you really think
about why we should establish a Moon Base and what problems need to be
You have been spared the task of filling it out, BUT, I think you can
see that politics has a lot to say whether we go to the Moon or Mars
in any time soon.
- LRK -

While at the University of North Dakota, Fabio got the opportunity to
test a Martian prototype space suit.
At the rate we are going he will not get to wear the real thing on
Mars (or the Moon either).
- LRK -

Mars Spacesuit Prototype Trials Underway in North Dakota
By Tariq Malik
Staff Writer
posted: 5 May 2006
6:28 p.m. ET

A spacesuit prototype designed for Mars exploration is bounding across the North Dakota badlands this week in a series of field tests to check its mobility and performance.

Engineers and university students are putting their North Dakota Experimental Planetary Space Suit through a series of challenges, including mock-Martian hikes, sample collections and - this Saturday - a simulated sandstorm.

The Mars spacesuit is the culmination of 14 months of work by faculty and students with the North Dakota Space Grant Consortium, which received $100,000 from NASA to develop the prototype. [The local public is invited to view the Mars spacesuit in action on Sat. May 6, weather permitting, at its North Dakota test site.


Donning the prototype

Field tests for the Mars prototype suit began May 1, with space studies graduate student Fabio Sau tucked inside the prototype from the start.

"It's a very personalized suit," Sau told from the North Dakota badlands test site. "They built the suit based on my measurements."

Sau said the suit, which has performed great so far, comes in two primary pieces split at the waist between upper torso and lower body. Helmet and glove attachments complete the outfit, which is then pressurized to about 1 pound per square-inch (psi) for tests, he added.

For comparison, NASA spacesuits are pressurized up to 4.3 psi while their Russian Orlan counterparts are set at 5.8 psi.
"The most difficult part is entering the upper torso," Sau said, adding that from start to finish he can don the suit in 15 minutes with some help from his colleagues.

Sau said getting the opportunity to work with actual hardware has been an amazing experience, which de Leon hopes will encourage other university students to pursue human spaceflight- related careers.


Fabio is now back in Cagliari, Italy.

Jeff Foust wrote back in 2007 an article about going to the Moon as seen in From Ad Astra, Volume 19 Number 1, Spring 2007.
- LRK -
Moon Base - The Next Step in the Exploration of the Solar System
By Jeff Foust

The United States is returning to the Moon, and this time it intends to stay there.

Ever since President George W. Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration program (VSE) in January 2004, the focus has been on NASA's plans to return to the Moon. Over the last three years, the space agency has worked on plans to develop the spacecraft and launch vehicles and other systems needed to mount the first human mission to the Moon since Apollo 17, in 1972. In the backs of everyone's minds, though, was a nagging question: Then what?

In December NASA provided at least a partial answer to that question when it unveiled the Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture Study, two efforts to explain what NASA will do on the Moon upon its return and how it will do it. The centerpiece of those plans is something that is both straight out of science fiction and long hoped for by space advocates: a base on the Moon.


Since the VSE's introduction three years ago, many had assumed that some sort of lunar base would be part of NASA's plans. In his speech at NASA headquarters to unveil the VSE, President Bush spoke about "extended human missions" to the Moon "with the goal of living and working there for increasingly extended periods." NASA documents since then that detailed the agency's long-term plans often referred to a "lunar outpost buildup" shortly after humans returned to the Moon.

However, NASA officials said that the current plans for the base emerged from efforts to explain why humans should go back to the Moon and what they can do there. "Our approach is one in which the architecture is definitely driven by the strategy that has been developed, the Global Exploration Strategy," said NASA Deputy Administrator Shona Dale. "The Global Exploration Strategy developed themes and objectives, and these objectives have led directly into the lunar architecture."

The Global Exploration Strategy was a NASA-led effort started in April 2006 that involved over 1,000 people, including representatives from 14 national space agencies, to identify the types of activities that could be done on the Moon. During a series of meetings, participants identified 180 potential objectives for lunar exploration in 23 categories, ranging from astronomy and lunar geology to commercialization and testing of technologies, needed for future human missions beyond the Moon.

As a part of that effort, six themes for human lunar exploration emerged: human civilization, scientific knowledge, exploration preparation, global partnerships, economic expansion, and public engagement. These broad—if somewhat vague—themes are intended by NASA to encapsulate all the possible rationales for exploring the Moon.


It doesn't look like we were prepared to support the idea of going back to stay and what has been said of the situation at hand is we were just going to go back and do the Apollo thing of stay a few days and close up shop. At least that is what I see as justification for scrapping the $9 billion spent so far and starting over again on a new plan. Starting over again on a new plan. Starting over again on a new plan. (sorry the needle got stuck in the grove)

And will the new plan really get funded for longer than one administration? Hmmm. No money. No money. No money. (Oops, needle got stuck again.)

!@#$%^&*() Ooops, shift key got stuck --- again!

Thanks for looking up with me.

Larry Kellogg

Web Site:
RSS link:
And Lori Garver says ----- (Do you see any politics in action here? - LRK -)

Days after release of the President’s 2011 budget, I am excited to continue to share information about our Nation’s bold new direction for human space flight. We plan to transform our relationship with the private sector as part of our Nation’s new strategy with the ultimate goal of expanding human presence across the Solar System.

Space tourism is a catalyst that has sparked a whole new industry of passenger-carrying spacecraft. New private firms that did not exist when this conference was first held 13 years ago now promise to revolutionize the space transportation industry. Thanks to President Obama, (and many of you), the United States and NASA are poised to take full advantage of this historic shift. The President’s budget commits substantial funding for NASA to increase the number and scope of its commercial partnerships. We plan to make use of commercial space providers to transport astronauts to the space station and other low-Earth orbit destinations.

This new direction may have been suggested as the preferred option by the Augustine Commission, but the decision was made by the President, with the full support of NASA’s leadership.



Saturday, March 06, 2010

Robert McCall - who created hundreds of paintings on space - died Feb. 26 in Scottsdale, Ariz. He was 90.

Mark Richards alerted me to this notice and I thought I would share.

We sometimes think that we are just one person and cannot make that
much difference.
Then you read about someone that has helped many see what has yet to be seen.

If you are a visual person that learns by seeing images, artists who
can paint pictures help take us to places we can only imagine and show
us places we have yet to visit ourselves.
- LRK -

Boston Globe post of New York Times article.
Robert McCall; created hundreds of paintings on space

By Douglas Martin
New York Times / March 6, 2010

NEW YORK - Robert T. McCall, an artist whose fervor for space
exploration found expression in his six-story-tall mural at the
National Air and Space Museum and two postage stamps canceled on the
Moon, died Feb. 26 in Scottsdale, Ariz. He was 90.

The cause was heart failure, said his wife, Louise.

Mr. McCall eagerly translated his youthful enthusiasm for drawing
knights in shining armor on spirited steeds into paintings of intrepid
astronauts in gleaming space vehicles, both real and imagined. When
NASA in 1962 hit on the idea of enlisting artists to promote its
mission, Mr. McCall was one of the first three chosen.


Enter --> [ Much to view in the link below, enjoy. - LRK - ]

NASA Space Art Gallery of Artist Robert T. McCall

Robert T. McCall
1919 - 2010
In Loving Memory

"Space Artist Robert McCall -
NASA Space Art. Space Art and Art for Star Trek, 2001 A Space Odyssey,
Dryden, Johnson Space Center, the Smithsonian and More!"

- Enter -

The Earlier New York Times article.
- LRK -

Robert T. McCall, Space Artist, Dies at 90

Published: March 5, 2010

Robert T. McCall, an artist whose fervor for space exploration found
expression in his six-story-tall mural at the National Air and Space
Museum and two postage stamps canceled on the Moon, died on Feb. 26 in
Scottsdale, Ariz. He was 90.


Robert McCall artist - Google Images

Much thanks to those that have helped us visualize going to space.
- LRK -

Thanks for looking up with me.

Larry Kellogg

Web Site:
RSS link:
Famed Space Artist Robert McCall, 90, Dies
By Robert Z. Pearlman
posted: 01 March 2010

Artist Robert McCall, whose visions of the past, present, and future
of space exploration have graced U.S. postage stamps, NASA mission
patches, and the walls of the Smithsonian, died on Friday of a heart
attack in Scottsdale, Arizona. He was 90.

Once described by author Isaac Asimov as the "nearest thing to an
artist in residence from outer space," McCall's paintings first
attracted the public's attention in the 1960s on the pages of LIFE,
illustrating the magazine's series on the future of space travel. He
expanded on that theme at the invitation of director Stanley Kubrick,
who had McCall paint the advertising posters for his seminal 1968
science fiction film, "2001: A Space Odyssey."

Since then, many more have encountered McCall's space art through
canvases both very large and very small.
The Art of Robert McCall: A Celebration of Our Future in Space (Hardcover)
~ Robert McCall
Robert McCall (Author)




Thursday, March 04, 2010

Lawmakers produce Bill to extend shuttle to 2015, utilize CxP, advance HLV

If you are not going to blast off to go directly to the Moon, where might you launch to?
Would that be up, up, to LEO for another day?
Would there be time to play?
Should I stay?
What can I say?
Just another day.

Interesting comments at and the forum.
- LRK -

Lawmakers produce Bill to extend shuttle to 2015, utilize CxP, advance HLV
March 3rd, 2010 by Chris Bergin

Senator Kay Hutchison – in conjunction with Representatives Suzanne
Kosmas and Bill Posey – has produced a 37 page Bill that proposes
major refinements to NASA’s FY2011 proposal, and NASA’s forward plan.
The Bill is centered around a shuttle extension to 2015, in support of
fully utilizing the International Space Station (ISS), along with
saving elements of Constellation – such as Orion and a Heavy Lift
Launcher (HLV).

Forum > General discussion >
Augustine Review/Shuttle Extension/NASA Future Section >
Topic: Lawmakers produce Bill to extend shuttle to 2015, utilize CxP,
advance HLV
Lawmakers produce Bill to extend shuttle to 2015, utilize CxP, advance HLV

If you want to follow what happens to this bill, here are some links.
- LRK -


Sen. Kay Hutchison [R-TX](no cosponsors)
The text of this legislation is not yet available on GovTrack. It may
not have been made available by the Government Printing Office

Occurred: Introduced Mar 3, 2010
Occurred: Referred to Committee View Committee Assignments
Not Yet Occurred: Reported by Committee ...
Not Yet Occurred: Senate Vote ...
Not Yet Occurred: House Vote ...
Not Yet Occurred: Signed by President ...
This bill is in the first step in the legislative process. Introduced
bills and resolutions first go to committees that deliberate,
investigate, and revise them before they go to general debate. The
majority of bills and resolutions never make it out of committee.
[Last Updated: Mar 4, 2010 6:45AM]
Last Action:
Mar 3, 2010: Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce,
Science, and Transportation.


Also can be tracked here as it progresses.

Title: A bill to reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration Human Space Flight Activities, and for other purposes.
Sponsor: Sen Hutchison, Kay Bailey [TX] (introduced 3/3/2010)
Cosponsors (None)
Latest Major Action: 3/3/2010 Referred to Senate committee. Status:
Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and

The Working Draft, 37 pages. - LRK -

MARCH 3, 2010
To reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human
Space Flight Activities, and for other purposes.
MARCH ——, 2010
Mrs. HUTCHISON (for herself, Mr. —————, and Mr. ————————
) introduced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the
Committee on ————————————

To reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Human Space Flight Activities, and for other
1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa
2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
4 (a) SHORT TITLE.—This Act may be cited as the
5 ‘‘Human Space Flight Capability Assurance and Enhance
6 ment Act of 2010’’.

March 3, 2010 (2:09 p.m.)


So now you can follow the workings of the USA Congress and get a feel for what part of space we are going to or not.
- LRK -

Thanks for looking up with me.

Larry Kellogg

Web Site:
RSS link:

* Article
* Discuss Article
* Edit Article
* History

S. 3068, The Human Space Flight Capability Assurance and Enhancement Act of 2010

S. 3068 would reauthorize the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration Human Space Flight Activities.

* Detailed Summary
* Status of the Legislation
* Points in Favor
* Points Against

Detailed Summary

(Log in to edit the wiki and be the first to provide a detailed
summary of the bill!)
Status of the Legislation

Latest Major Action: 3/3/2010: Referred to Senate committee. Status:
Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
Points in Favor

(Log in to edit the wiki and be the first to show why the bill should pass!)
Points Against

(Log in to edit the wiki and be the first to show why the bill should not pass!)




Wednesday, March 03, 2010

Moon 101 Lecture Series

Watching Moon 101 Lecture Series on laptop as found at the Lunar and
Planetary Institute web site.
- LRK -

Moon 101 Lecture Series


These media files were produced by NASA and are posted on this website
with permission. The viewing of these lectures requires the use of
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 and later versions on Microsoft
Windows machines or the Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.2.2 and later
versions on the Apple Macintosh. The lectures are not compatible with
Firefox or Safari web browsers.

After the link is clicked, please allow a few minutes for the slides
to load completely before beginning the video. Click on “Play” to
start the lecture. You may jump ahead or back in the lecture at any
time by highlighting and clicking on the slide titles.

The following presentations are included in the lecture series.

Introduction to the Moon, Dr. Paul Spudis
The Lunar Environment, Dr. Wendell Mendell
Physiography and Geology of the Moon, Dr. Paul Spudis
The Lunar Surface, Dr. Jeff Plescia
The Lunar Crust, Dr. Gary Lofgren
The Lunar Interior, Dr. Jeff Plescia
The Lunar Polar Environment, Dr. Ben Bussey
A Brief, Selective History of the Apollo Program, Dr. Dean Eppler
Future Scientific Exploration of the Moon, Dr. Paul Spudis
Lunar Meteorites, Dr. Kevin Righter


More Lunar Science and Education

Center for Lunar Science and Exploration
The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Johnson Space Center
(JSC) have a long and successful history of collaborative research and
exploration activities that began with the Apollo program. The LPI
and JSC have harnessed that heritage to build the new Center for Lunar
Science and Exploration to better support our nation’s new lunar
science and exploration activities.

Check out the Meetings Calendar - Maybe something of interest and
topics to poke our leaders with.

Thanks for looking up with me.

Larry Kellogg

Web Site:
RSS link:

Introduction to the Moon

In the first presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Paul
Spudis gives an introduction to the Moon, providing an overview of the
more detailed Moon 101 lectures to follow. The presentation begins by
describing the nature of the Moon as a heavily cratered rocky planet,
and compares the general properties of the Moon to those of the Earth
and Mars. Global images and elemental composition maps are then
followed by discussions of: the thermal and micrometeorite
environments on the lunar surface; the Moon's orbit and resulting
eclipses and lunar librations as viewed from Earth; surface
topography; moment of inertia; surface morphology and physiography;
landscapes and terrains; the surface lighting environment; regolith
and dust; and the origin of the Moon. The presentation concludes with
a review of past and current robotic exploration missions to the Moon.

Lesson presented: 06⁄04⁄2008
Lesson produced: 09⁄05⁄2008

Duration: 56 minutes 5 seconds

The Lunar Environment
Dr. Mendell's presentation addresses a multitude of aspects of the
Lunar Environment. The first section reviews the many external factors
that act upon the Moon and how their effects that need to be
understood by the lunar designer or explorer. He chooses to discuss
the environmental factors through their connection to the Moon's
location in the universe, in the Milky Way Galaxy, in our solar system
near the Sun, and in proximity to the Earth. The effects of the solar
wind plasma, meteoroids, and solar insolation are important on the
Moon because it lacks a magnetic field and a substantial atmosphere.
He describes the Earth-Moon system as a “binary planet” and discusses
the Lunar Coordinate System and the importance of the Moon’s polar
regions. The second part of Dr. Mendell's presentation covers the
implications of the environment for living and working on the Moon. We
have little to no experience in habitat design for a low-gravity
planet. The Moon's 'lumpy' structure introduces irregularities in its
gravitational field, increasing the cost of maintaining low orbits. He
goes on to discuss the Moon's tenuous atmosphere, its unusual surface
reflectivity, ejecta from surface impacts (why we need to worry about
this), lunar seismic events (moonquakes, impact events – even ours),
and lastly emanations of gases from beneath the surface.

Lesson presented: June 18, 2008
Lesson published: June 27, 2008

Duration: 54 minutes 12 seconds

Physiography and Geology of the Moon
Dr. Paul Spudis discusses the physiography and geology of the moon
including: terrains, landforms, topography (photogeology), impact
crater formation, excavation, ejecta emplacement, secondaries, impact
melting and shock metamorphism, lunar meteorites, flux through time;
cataclysm, periodicity, correlation with terrestrial record and other

Lesson presented: July 2, 2008
Lesson published: July 9, 2008

Duration: 58 minutes 40 seconds

The Lunar Surface
The fourth presentation in the Moon 101 series, Dr. Jeff Plescia
discusses – dust, rocks, slopes, trafficability (geotechnical
properties); formation and evolution of regolith, interface with
bedrock; crater size-frequency distributions, exotic components,
highland⁄mare mixing, vertical and lateral transport of material;
chemical and mineral composition, physical state, properties, and
surface characteristics.

Lesson presented: July 16, 2008
Lesson produced: July 23, 2008

Duration: 49 minutes 27 seconds

The Lunar Crust
Dr. Gary Lofgren discusses the current understanding of the crust of
the Moon. The presentation begins with a brief overview of the Moon's
surface, and discusses the prevailing Magma Ocean Theory resulting in
the formation of the primary, or original, lunar crust. The crust was
subsequently modified by impact bombardment and volcanic activity.
Compositional variations in the lunar crust are then described as
three major terrains: Procellarum KREEP terrain, Feldspathic Highlands
terrain, and the South Pole-Aitken basin terrain. It is noted that
studying rock samples is the key to understanding the lunar crust. The
presentation then focuses on the characteristics and ages of the major
rock types found on the Moon: basaltic rocks from mare lava flows,
anorthositic rocks in the lunar highlands, impact breccias and melt
rocks, and volcanic glasses. The lecture concludes with a brief review
of the rock sampling conducted during the Apollo missions, and lessons
learned for future lunar surface exploration.

Lesson presented: 07⁄30⁄2008
Lesson produced: 08⁄21⁄2008

Duration: 54 minutes 11 seconds

The Lunar Interior
In the sixth presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Jeff
Plescia discusses the current understanding of the interior of the
Moon. The presentation begins with a brief overview of the Moon from a
geophysical perspective, and discusses the prevailing Giant impact
Theory and Magma Ocean Theory resulting in the formation of the Moon
and its differentiation into crust, mantle, and core. The presentation
then focuses on the current understanding of the chemistry,
mineralogy, and thickness of the lunar crust; the boundaries, depth,
and mineralogy of the mantle; and the size and composition of the
lunar core. Geophysical parameters of the Moon are then discussed,
including: the seismic nature of the Moon, including shallow, deep,
and thermal moonquakes and impact events; the lunar gravity field;
magnetism; and heat flow.

Lesson presented: 08⁄13⁄2008
Lesson produced: 08⁄20⁄2008

Duration: 1 hour 30 seconds

The Lunar Polar Environment
In the seventh presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Ben
Bussey discusses the current understanding of the polar regions of the
Moon. The presentation begins with a brief overview of the geometry of
the Moon's axis of rotation with respect to the ecliptic plane, the
resulting polar environment on the lunar surface, and the proposition
that a polar region, particularly the south pole, would be a good
location for a lunar outpost. Using imagery data from the Clementine
and SMART-1 missions, the majority of the presentation focuses on how
local topography at the poles result in two specific areas of
interest: permanently shadowed craters possibly containing water ice,
and topographically high areas that receive enhanced illumination from
sunlight due to their elevated position with respect to the
surrounding terrain. The presentation concludes with discussions about
how radar instruments on the Chandrayaan-1 and Lunar Reconnaissance

Lesson presented: 08⁄27⁄2008
Lesson produced: 09⁄09⁄2008

Duration: 58 minutes 53 seconds

A Brief, Selective History of the Apollo Program
In the eighth presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Dean
Eppler provides a brief and selective history of the Apollo program.
The presentation begins with President Kennedy's message to Congress
on National Priorities in May of 1961, and his desire to commit the
nation to the exploration of the Moon. The presentation then focuses
on several key efforts that made the Apollo program successful,
including national will, money, heavy lift launch vehicles, lunar
landers, space suits, operational practices, and luck. An overview of
each Apollo mission to the Moon then follows, including mission facts
and statistics, results, and lessons learned. The presentation
concludes with discussions on how the Constellation Program could use
the lessons learned from Apollo to benefit the future explorations of
the Moon.

Lesson presented: 09⁄10⁄2008
Lesson produced: 10⁄10⁄2008

Duration: 56 minutes 6 seconds

Future Scientific Exploration of the Moon
In the ninth presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Paul
Spudis discusses current ideas for the future exploration of and
operations on the Moon. The presentation begins with a brief overview
of why the Moon is important and the value of exploration,
particularly human spaceflight. Points of discussion included using
the Moon as a school for exploration, a place to learn how to live and
work off planet, and a stepping stone to the Solar System. The
presentation then focuses on how geological exploration is conducted,
including reconnaissance and field work, field and lab analyses,
mapping, and planning surveys, traverses, and transects. The
importance of surface mobility to accomplish these tasks, and the
proper mix and use of humans and robots are highlighted. The
presentation then focuses on the use of emplaced science stations and
observatories for geophysics, astrophysics, heliophysics, and earth
observations. The presentation concludes with discussions summarizing
new exploration approaches and the challenges facing these approaches,
such as lighting conditions and lunar dust.

Lesson presented: 09⁄24⁄08
Lessom produced: 10⁄20⁄08

Duration: 1 hour 2 minutes 58 seconds

Lunar Meteorites
In the tenth presentation of the Moon 101 lecture series, Dr. Kevin
Righter discusses lunar meteorites and how they have contributed to
lunar science. The presentation begins with a brief overview
describing what meteorites are and what they look like. Discussion
then continues with where meteorites come from, and how lunar
meteorites can be recognized from other meteorites. The presentation
then focuses on NASA's involvement with the U.S. Antarctic meteorite
program, and the curation of collected meteorites, including the tools
and materials used. Other locations where meteorites have been
collected, such as Africa, are also mentioned. The presentation
concludes with discussions about how the study of lunar meteorites has
contributed to the advancement of lunar science, including extending
the range of ages for the eruption of basaltic lavas, refining the
composition of the feldspathic highlands crust, and providing more
data to better understand the impact flux at Moon.

Lesson presented: 10⁄08⁄08
Lesson produced: 10⁄28⁄08

Duration: 51 minutes 8 seconds



This is the lunar-update at
This list is a moderated list.
The moderator is Larry Kellogg (larry.kellogg AT
Please send suggestions for postings directly to Larry.

41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
March 1 - 5, 2010 Woodlands, Texas

There are those interested in understanding the Moon.
Pass it on.
- LRK -

41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)

Final Announcement
Electronic Registration Form
Downloadable Registration Form
Exhibitor Showcase

List of Exhibitors

Press Information

Program with Abstracts

Author Index

Download by Session

Downloadable files are provided for each session that includes abstracts. These files are different from the files available through the link "Program with Abstracts" in that they contain the full program listing for a particular session, as well as all the files for the abstracts being presented in that session. These files will provide an easy way for participants to download and print out all the abstracts for a session.

Remember that the titles in the program listings of these files are NOT linked to the individual abstracts as they are in the "Program with Abstracts" version. These files are available via the LPI's anonymous FTP site. Instructions for accessing the site are provided below. The file names are shown to the right of each session (e.g., "full51.pdf"). If you have any questions regarding these files, please contact Linda Tanner at 281-486-2142 or

To access the LPI's FTP site, ftp to

User Name: anonymous
Password: your e-mail address

Change the directory to


and then retrieve the file(s) you are interested in (see listing below).

Note: The files should be downloaded in BINARY mode.

If you prefer to download the files using your web browser, you can simply click on the file names, which are linked to the ftp site. A left click will launch the Acrobat Reader and pull up the file via your browser (this may take some time, depending on the size of the file), and you can then save the file on your machine for later printing or viewing. A right click will give you the option to save the file directly to your machine without first having to launch the Reader and open the file. (A right click on the Mac is accomplished by holding down the command key and then clicking.)


See Lunar Pioneer - Lunar Networks blog for interesting posts.
- LRK -

Saturday, February 27, 2010
LPSC-XLI (2010) - The Moon, Friday, March 5

1:30 p.m. Waterway Ballroom 6
Chairs: Juliane Gross
Mirjam van Kan Parker

1:30 p.m. Barr J. A. * Grove T. L. Primordial Lunar Mantle Melts and Assimilated Magma Ocean Cumulates: Implications for the Depth of the Lunar Magma Ocean Based on Ultramafic Glass Compositions [#2427] We have developed a model to predict the chemistry of primordial lunar
mantle melts. These model melts can be used in mixing calculations to help constrain the depth of magma ocean cumulates, and by association the depth of the lunar magma ocean.


Lunar Papers:
March 1

March 2

March 3

March 4

March 5


Explore the Moon, what a concept.
Nudge, nudge, look up there, what do you really know about our nearest neighbor?
Hey, I am talken to you, "What do you REALLY KNOW ABOUT THE MOON?"
Wouldn't you like to see for yourself?
Pass it on.
- LRK-


A. L. Fagan1, M. E. Ennis2, J. N. Pogue3, S. Porter4, J. F. Snape5, C. R. Neal6, and D. A. Kring7;
1Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA; 2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 3Earth and Planetary Sciences Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA; 4School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, UK; 6 Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA; 7 Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX, USA

NASA is evaluating lunar surface architectures that involve sortie and outpost-based exploration within the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin [e.g., 1]. To assist with that evaluation, our team studied the geology of the SPA Basin to locate mission sites that best address the nation’s highest lunar science priorities (NRC 2007, [2]). Our study reveals that crew can begin to address most science objectives within the SPA Basin, which is the oldest (>4 Ga) and largest (~2500 km diameter) impact basin on the Moon and is both topographically and compositionally distinct from the rest of the lunar surface. The study also suggests there are three particularly science-rich mission sites within the SPA Basin: Schrödinger Basin, Antoniadi Crater, and Von Kármán Crater. Mission options within Schrödinger Basin have been previously outlined [3]. Here we describe opportunities within Antoniadi Crater and, in a companion abstract [4], we discuss Von Kármán Crater.


Well at least the LRO is getting results.
More press releases, more public relation output, more interactions
with those who control the purse strings.
Someone paint the big picture, there is a lot of space out there.
What and adventure to take part in..
- LRK -

41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010) full104.pdf

Monday, March 1, 2010


A lot of presentations and articles.
Now will have to spend some time reading them.
How about you?
Know someone that might be interested as well, pass it on.
- LRK -

41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010) program.pdf

March 1–5, 2010

To access the abstracts, use the hand tool of your Acrobat Reader to click on the name of any session.
After the full program listing for that session appears, click on the title of a presentation to view the abstract for that presentation.

And don't forget to take a look at Space Resources in NASA SP-509.

There is a lot to think about just in the OVERVIEW.

Thanks for looking up with me.

Larry Kellogg

Web Site:
RSS link:
Table of Contents

Space Settlements

A Design Study

Edited by

* Richard D. Johnson, NASA Ames Research Center
* Charles Holbrow, Colgate University

Authored by the participants of




List of Participants
Table of Contents

Technical papers derived from the 1977 Summer Study
at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

Study Director

Gerard K. O'Neill
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey


John Billingham and William Gilbreath
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California

Brian O'Leary
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

Manuscript Editor

Beulah Gossett
Los Altos, California




Moon and Mars - Videos