Many folks would like to see us back on the Moon and developing its resources.

Tuesday, December 06, 2005

Well it is several days into December already and a new year almost upon us.

One reason to think about going to space might be to stretch our imagination
and many have done just that in Science Fiction. Then comes science fact
and a whole new line of marketable goods here on mother Earth.

You might enjoy looking at the following web site.
- LRK -

Home Glossary Author Book Timeline New
Explore the wide variety of inventions and ideas of science fiction
writers - over 900 are available on Technovelgy (that's tek-novel-gee!). Use
the Timeline of Science Fiction Invention or the alphabetic Glossary of
Science Fiction Technology to see them all, look for the category that
interests you, browse by favorite author / book or check Science Fiction in
the News and watch sf come to life.
Here's to looking up in the New Year.
- LRK -

Larry Kellogg
Web Site
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Central City (Lunar Habitat)
An early example of a non-military lunar habitat.
Central City was twenty miles from the spaceport, and Sadler had seen
nothing of the lunar metropolis on his arrival...
The cluster of great domes began to hump themselves over the horizon...
Some, Sadler knew, could be made transparent when desired. All were opaque
now, conserving their heat against the lunar night.

...the whole dome was countersunk... into the lunar plain, thus reducing the
amount of roof structure necessary... there was a blue sky overhead... the
sun was shining just behind him, and... there were cirrus clouds floating
high above.

>From Earthlight, by Arthur C. Clarke.
Published by Del Rey in 1955
New! Related resources -
The dome maintenance crews even planned occasional "thundershowers" that
used water from above to clean both air and structure.
In 2002 a Lunar Base Design Workshop was organised by the Institute for
Design and Building Construction of the University of Technology in Vienna.

The first workshop was held at ESTEC, ESA's Research and Technology Centre
in the Netherlands. Around 40 students from 16 countries attended the
two-week workshop. A second workshop took place in Vienna in July 2002.
Below are some of the designs that the students came up with for lunar bases
and stations on Mars.

Slide 49(B) of 99
S.E.I. Back to the Moon to Stay. (Space Exploration Initiative)

NASA/Johnson Space Center [November 1989]
LUNAR OUTPOST, Alred, Bufkin, Kennedy, Roberts, Petro, Stecklein & Sturm ,
Systems Definition Branch, Advanced Programs Office, NASA/Johnson Space
Center [1989]
Space Stations and Manned Spaceflight in the 1980s and 90s
Sinde 99 of 99
The Space Review
Apollo: what didn’t get built
by Taylor Dinerman
Monday, May 2, 2005

Anyone with a serious interest in space history should get their hands on a
copy of James R. Hansen’s monograph, Enchanted Rendezvous: John C. Houbolt
and the Genesis of the Lunar-Orbit Rendezvous Concept, published by NASA’s
history office in 1998. It clears up any number of misconceptions about the
nature of the early Moon program. For example, the Earth Orbit Rendezvous
option, on which Wernher von Braun and his team spent so much time and
effort, did not require building a permanent space station. It also makes
clear just how much (or how little) work NASA had done on the lunar landing
project before President Kennedy made his famous May 25, 1961 speech.
Romance to Reality
First Lunar Outpost (FLO) Conceptual Flight Profile, JSC-25880, Systems
Engineering Division, Engineering Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center,
June 1992.

The Exploration Program Office (ExPO) at NASA's Johnson Space Center in
Houston, Texas, launched the First Lunar Outpost (FLO) study in December
1991 by establishing six study teams. The present document, prepared by the
JSC Systems Engineering Division and McDonnell Douglas-Houston to aid the
FLO Mission Design and Analysis Team, details FLO Habitat and Crew Lander
flight plans. For its analysis, it targets the first FLO expedition to Mare
Smythii on the moon's eastern limb. Its most significant departure from the
January 1992 FLO [read] is the assumption that NASA will develop a
heavy-lift rocket capable of launching 200 metric tons to 185-kilometer
low-Earth orbit (LEO) and 27 metric tons to the lunar surface [read] [view].
This permits the two FLO landers (Habitat and Crew) to be launched with
their respective Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) stages attached, eliminating
rendezvous, docking, and reliance on Earth-orbiting space stations from the
FLO plan. In other words, this FLO iteration uses the Direct Ascent mode
considered for the Apollo lunar missions, while the January 1992 FLO used
Earth-Orbital Rendevous, another Apollo mode candidate. The first FLO
expedition is set to start five years after program initiation; the report
calls this "not only feasible and attractive, but essential in gaining
budget acceptance." The FLO Habitat flight from Earth to moon occurs as

Launch - October 5, 1999, 0930 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT): The unpiloted FLO
Habitat and its attached TLI stage lift off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
in pre-dawn darkness. Apollo 17's December 1972 night launch atop a Saturn V
rocket is said to have lit KSC like day and cast shadows in Orlando, 40
miles away. FLO's launcher, 1.7 times more powerful than Saturn V, would
create an even more impressive display. Two launch windows (one in darkness)
are generally available per day. These last about 4.5 hours each if the
launch azimuth (that is, direction) is kept within a range spanning 72
degrees (that is, toward the northeast) when the launch window opens and 108
degrees (southeast) when it closes. Assuming an on-time launch, the rocket
places the Habitat and TLI stage into a 185-kilometer (100-nautical-mile)
parking orbit inclined 33.26 degrees to Earth's equator.

TLI - October 5, 1999, 1051 GMT: If KSC launch occurs as the first launch
window opens, TLI stage ignition occurs 81 minutes later. For the first
daily launch window, TLI occurs while the Habitat and TLI stage are over the
Pacific. The TLI stage must be used within 4.5 hours of KSC launch lest its
liquid hydrogen fuel boil and escape; this creates a limit of three TLI
opportunities per launch window. TLIs for the second daily launch window
occur over the Atlantic. The TLI stage adds 3.15 kilometers per second to
the Habitat's speed to put it on course for the moon, separates, then fires
its engines again to distance itself from the Habitat. The stage can be
targeted to collide with the moon at a desired location or can fly past and
enter solar orbit. At separation the Habitat Lander consists of a descent
stage and a permanently attached pressurized Habitat module. The FLO Habitat
and FLO Crew Lander use a common-design descent stage.

Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) - October 10, 1999, 1051 GMT: The Habitat's
coast to the moon lasts five days. Rather than descend directly to the moon,
the Habitat fires its rocket engines to enter 100-kilometer circular orbit,
then performs a deorbit burn at the earliest opportunity - in this case, 58
minutes later (1149 GMT). This approach permits access to sites all over the
moon ("essential [for providing] a capability to reach areas of highest
interest and greatest potential return") and demands less propellant than
direct landing.

Lunar landing - October 10, 1999, 1253 GMT: After the deorbit burn, the
Habitat coasts in an elliptical 100-kilometer-by-18.5-kilometer orbit.
Perilune (the lowest point in its orbit) occurs near the Mare Smythii
landing site. It fires its rockets to commence powered descent to the lunar
surface at 1246 GMT, just after it passes perilune. After braking for nearly
six minutes, the Habitat pitches over in a leisurely 60-second maneuver to
point its footpads toward the lunar surface. The Habitat descends vertically
100 meters in 24 seconds, then touches down at Mare Smythii five days, three
hours, and 23 minutes after leaving KSC.
Romance to Reality: moon & Mars mission plans
It is part of the nature of man to start with romance and build to a
- Ray Bradbury

Romance to Reality contains more than 400 detailed annotations (that is,
summaries and descriptions) of classic, seminal, and illustrative moon and
Mars exploration studies dating from 1950 to present. These are arranged in
15 sections by subject. I continually add to this site because I want to

* make widely available the legacy of ideas engineers and scientists have
developed for exploring the moon and Mars

* teach about the challenges and opportunities of exploring the moon and

* give insight into the historical context of moon and Mars exploration

* provide an exciting glimpse of possible futures by looking into the past

* help in a small way to build a future including human activities on the
moon and Mars

My criteria for selecting documents to annotate are admittedly fluid. I give
emphasis to studies which emerged as important to later planning, but also
include those that help to illustrate the wide range of moon and Mars
options. Romance to Reality is meant to be a primer for building the future,
not merely a catalog of unrealized dreams. - David S. F. Portree
February 19, 1998

NC State Team Designs Construction of Lunar Habitat
Students and faculty at NC State are shooting for the moon as they create
plans that may help NASA develop a lunar station. The team of students and
faculty from a broad range of disciplines, including students and faculty
from electrical and computer engineering, mechanical and aerospace
engineering, civil engineering and the School of Design, has developed
prototypes of a robot, lunar lander and habitat module to create NASA's
proposed living quarters for astronauts and researchers on the moon.

The team has taken the name HELIOS, an acronym for Habitat Exploration
Leaders in Outer Space and a reference to the Greek god of the sun. Their
mission is to compete in the Space '98 Robotics Competition, a national
competition sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
and the American Society of Civil Engineers that will be held in
Albuquerque, NM, April 26-30. NASA and ASCE sponsor the event as part of the
national Space Education Initiative. The ideas generated by the student
teams will be reviewed by NASA personnel and members of the aerospace
industry in the effort to meet NASA's goal of making the moon habitable by
the year 2010.

"Our designs or modifications of our designs could be what NASA uses to
create the first lunar station," says Jason Janet, HELIOS adviser and
doctoral candidate in electrical engineering. "It is exciting to play a part
in the future of space exploration."

The competition, which is run similarly to calls for government design
contracts, is designed to raise the awareness of future engineering
opportunities in space by challenging students in traditionally
non-space-related engineering disciplines to apply their skills toward the
solution of space-based problems. NASA has provided a set of specifications,
and each team must present design proposals and demonstrate proof-of-concept
using 1/12th scale prototypes. NC State's HELIOS team will compete with
other major engineering universities to see which team can create
engineering plans and working models of everything needed to build a home on
the moon for researchers and space travelers.

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