Many folks would like to see us back on the Moon and developing its resources.

Friday, January 28, 2005

Workshop on ionising particle measurements in space

31 January - 2 February 2005

/Workshop Presentations/

Workshop on Ionising Particle Measurements in Space
ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 31 January - 2 February 2005

(updated 2005-01-18)
*Monday 31 January* *
*09.00-10.00* *Registration and coffee*

*10.00* Welcome and Scope (A. Mohammadzadeh, P. Nieminen/ESA-ESTEC, S. Bourdarie/ONERA)
*10.15* Radiation Monitoring - ESA Missions and Strategy (E. Daly/ESA-ESTEC)
*10.45* ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) Activities (J. Schneider/Contraves Space AG)

*11.15* *Coffee/Tea*

*11.30* CNES Activities on Ionising Particle Measurements (R. Ecoffet, E. Lorfevre, A. Corominas-Murtra, A. Sicard-Piet, M. Moulin/CNES, D. Falguere, T. Nuns, S. Duzellier, D. Boscher, S. Bourdarie/ONERA-DESP, J.A. Savaud/CESR, G. Sarrabayrouse/LAAS, J. Gasiot, L. Dusseau/CEM-USTL)
*12.00* Monitoring Capabilities of the Earth Charged Particle Environment (S. Bourdarie/ONERA, R. Ecoffet/CNES, J-A. Savaud/CESR, D. Boscher/ONERA)
*12.30* The MERLIN Space Weather Hazard Monitor and Its Sensor Suite (Comprising CREDO and SURF) (C.S. Dyer, K.A. Ryden/QinetiQ)

*13.00* *Lunch

**14.00* Observations of the Space Radiation Environment by the CRE/CEDEX Radiation Monitoring Payload and Its Planned Flight on the Galileo System Test-Bed Satellite (GSTB-V2-A) (C.I. Underwood/Surrey Space Center, S. Jason/Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd.)
*14.30 *SenSys (Sensor Systems) MRM: Miniature Radiation Monitors, Past Present, and Plans (C.P.W. Boeder, SenSys)
*15.00 *SOHO/ERNE: Instrument Description and Available Data (E. Valtonen, University of Turku)

*15.30 Coffee/Tea*

*15.45* The AMS01 Experience and the LAZIO Project (G. Esposito/Univ. Perugia/INFN)
*16.15 *Silicon-Strip Detectors and Human-Related Factors of Radiation in Space (C. Fuglesang/ESA-EAC)
*16.45 *DOSTEL - an LET Spectrometer Designed for Dose Assessment for Astronauts (G. Reitz/DLR)
*17.15 *The Aerospace Space-Radiation "Dosimeter on a Chip" (W.R. Crain, jr, D.J. Mabry, and J.B. Blake/The Aerospace Corporation)

*17.45 *Discussion

*18.00 End*

*Tuesday 1 February* * *09.15* The Use of RADFETs for Space Dosimetry (A. Jaksic, V. Ogourtsov/Tyndall National Institute)
*09.45* SREM - Performance in Space (P. Bühler)
*10.10* Radiation Environment Research from Multiple Monitors (S. Bourdarie, D. Boscher/ONERA, P. Nieminen/ESA, R. Ecoffet/CNES, P. Bühler, P. Stauning/DMI, M. Cyamukungu/CSR, D. Heynderickx, K. Stegen/BIRA, S. Clucas/QinetiQ)
*10.40* Analysis of Data from the Miniature Radiation Monitor on PROBA-1 (L. Soung Yee/ESA-ESTEC)

*11.00* *Coffee/Tea*

*11.15* SMART-1 Anomalies Investigation (G. Milito, L. Giulicchi, A. Mohammadzadeh,/ESA-ESTEC)
*11.35* IPSAT: Ionising Particle in Space Analysis Tool (S. Bourdarie, A. Sicard, D. Boscher/ONERA)
*11.55* A Radiation Monitor for LISA Pathfinder (P. Wass, H. Araujo, J. Quenby, D Shaul, T. Sumner /Imperial College London, I Martinez, M Chmeissani /IFAE, Barcelona, C Boatella, A Lobo / IEEC, Barcelona, C Grimani / University of Urbino and INFN, H Vocca / University of Perugia and INFN)
*12.20* PHOEBUS: A Proposal for Solar Physics on LISA (C. Grimani / Univ. Urbino and INFN, H. Vocca / Univ. Perugia and INFN)

*12.45 Lunch*

*13.45* Standard Particle and X-Ray Monitor, SPAXMON (J. Stenberg, Patria Oy)
*14.15* Small Low Energy Electron Detector for Space Applications (W. Hajdas, C. Eggel, A. Mchedlishvili, A. Zehnder/PSI, A. Mohammadzadeh, P. Nieminen/ESA-ESTEC)
*14.45 *Radiation Monitoring Studies for Future ESA Missions (P. Assis, P. Brogueira, P. Goncalves, D. Maia, M. Pimenta, B. Tome/LIP Lisbon)

*15.15 Coffee/Tea*

*15.30* The Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT) (M. Cyamukungu, S. Benck, G. Gregoire, P. Leleux, J. Lemaire/Center for Space Radiations, Louvain-la-Neuve)
*16.00* European Current Development of the General Standard Environment Monitor (GSEM) (J. Schneider/Contraves Space AG)
*16.30* Round Table discussion on future radiation monitor developments, flight opportunities, and coordination
*17.50* Conclusions (E. Daly, A. Mohammadzadeh, P. Nieminen/ESA-ESTEC, S. Bourdarie/ONERA)

*18.00* *End*

25 page, PDF file of all the abstracts from the workshop. 2 meg.

Individual PDF abstract files are selected from the agenda.html page above if you want to only look at one abstract at a time. - LRK -


Experiment Operation During Apollo IVA at 0-g

Experiment: Light Flashes Experiment Package (Apollo light flash moving emulsion detector)

Apollo Flight Nos.: 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17
Apollo Exp't No.: NA

Discipline: Life Sciences (2500), Animal Biology/Medical - Eyes (2538), Cosmic Radiation (2900)

Weight: 3.5 kg - ALFMED
Dimensions: NA

Manufacturer: uncertain

All crews since A-11 (and perhaps some earlier) observed light flashes when in the dark or when they closed their eyes, while in transit to and from the Moon, on the surface, and in lunar orbit. On A-14 an observational schedule was first followed to test the various theories of the origin of the flashes. Flashes could be seen with the eyes open or closed when the spacecraft was dark. They discovered that it was not necessary to be dark adapted to see the flashes. This indicates that Cerenkov radiation from energetic cosmic rays traversing the eyeball, which had been the most widely accepted explanation for the light flashes, probably did not cause all or most of the flashes because light from this source is quite faint. Some of the flashes observed in space may be caused by direct ionization interactions of cosmic rays with the retina.

The ALFMED was an electromechanical device carried on A-16 & 17 that was worn on the head somewhat like a helmet and supported cosmic-radiation-sensitive emulsions around the head of the test subject. A physical record was provided of cosmic ray particles that passed through the emulsion and, in turn, through the head. A fixed vs. moving emulsion comparison allowed time resolution to 1 sec.


A vicarious voyage
BU astronomer lands $9.5M contract to measure charged particles near the moon

By David J. Craig

NASA scientists and engineers know that spacecraft traveling to the moon in a few years will need to be outfitted with special protection against charged particles that routinely traverse the cosmos at nearly the speed of light. But they don’t know how much protection will be necessary because the robotic and manned missions that President Bush mandated last year will last longer than previous moon trips, exposing astronauts and their high-tech equipment to more of the powerful particles.

Harlan Spence, a CAS and GRS astronomy professor and department chairman, was chosen by NASA recently to help solve that problem. An instrument he has proposed developing, called Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), will be among the key data-gathering tools aboard NASA’s robotic Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) craft, which is scheduled to orbit the moon on a one-year exploratory mission beginning in 2008. Spence (CAS’83) expects to receive an approximately $9.5 million contract from NASA for CRaTER, one of six high-profile research projects NASA announced funding for in December, as part of its LRO program. Together, the six projects will develop the instruments LRO uses to gather information that will guide the planning and execution of future lunar missions.

“The objective of CRaTER is to determine the effects on humans of long-term exposure to charged particles — mainly protons and electrons — using a material that replicates human tissue, as well as the effects on electronic and computer equipment,” says Spence, an expert on space weather and technologies that measure high-energy charged particles in space. “For decades, we’ve had a pretty good idea what types of protection are needed for short visits to the moon, but we’ll be studying what’s needed to essentially live there.”

Spence’s research team includes Larry Kepko, a senior research associate at the Center for Space Physics, as well as scientists at the California-based research group the Aerospace Corporation, MIT’s Center for Space Research, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, the Air Force Research Laboratory in Bedford, Mass., and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.

CRaTER will measure the effect on human tissue and electronic equipment of charged particles called galactic cosmic rays, which often originate in supernovas and race through deep space more or less constantly, and the similar but more intense solar cosmic rays, which are caused by storms on the sun. It was a series of solar events that in late 2003 sent billions of tons of charged gas hurtling through our solar system at speeds of up to five million miles per hour, disrupting satellites and ripping apart a sizable portion of the Mars atmosphere. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station at the time could have been injured had they not taken cover in a special shelter. Spence says that much more must be learned about the effects of charged particles before stations can be designed that are safe for the moon.



Friday, January 21, 2005

Seeing, touching and smelling the extraordinarily Earth-like world of Titan

21 January 2005

ESA PR 05-2005. On 14 January ESA's Huygens probe made an historic first ever descent to the surface of Titan, 1.2 billion kilometres from Earth and the largest of Saturn's moons. Huygens travelled to Titan as part of the joint ESA/NASA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission. Starting at about 150 kilometres altitude, six multi-function instruments on board Huygens recorded data during the descent and on the surface. The first scientific assessments of Huygens' data were presented during a press conference at ESA head office in Paris on 21 January.

"We now have the key to understanding what shapes Titan's landscape," said Dr Martin Tomasko, Principal Investigator for the Descent Imager-Spectral Radiometer (DISR), adding: "Geological evidence for precipitation, erosion, mechanical abrasion and other fluvial activity says that the physical processes shaping Titan are much the same as those shaping Earth."

Spectacular images captured by the DISR reveal that Titan has extraordinarily Earth-like meteorology and geology. Images have shown a complex network of narrow drainage channels running from brighter highlands to lower, flatter, dark regions. These channels merge into river systems running into lakebeds featuring offshore 'islands' and 'shoals' remarkably similar to those on Earth.

Data provided in part by the Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) and Surface Science Package (SSP) support Dr Tomasko's conclusions. Huygens' data provide strong evidence for liquids flowing on Titan. However, the fluid involved is methane, a simple organic compound that can exist as a liquid or gas at Titan's sub-170°C temperatures, rather than water as on Earth.

Titan's rivers and lakes appear dry at the moment, but rain may have occurred not long ago.


See also NASA Cassini Probe info. Huygens Reveals Titan's Earth-like Features - Jan. 21 2005

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Monday, January 03, 2005

Operating Manual For Spaceship Earth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1. comprehensive propensities
I am enthusiastic over humanity’s extraordinary and sometimes very timely ingenuities. If you are in a shipwreck and all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat that comes along makes a fortuitous life preserver. But this is not to say that the best way to design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top. I think that we are clinging to a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday’s fortuitous contrivings as constituting the only means for solving a given problem. Our brains deal exclusively with special-case experiences. Only our minds are able to discover the generalized principles operating without exception in each and every special-experience case which if detected and mastered will give knowledgeable advantage in all instances.

Because our spontaneous initiative has been frustrated, too often inadvertently, in earliest childhood we do not tend, customarily, to dare to think competently regarding our potentials. We find it socially easier to go on with our narrow, shortsighted specialization’s and leave it to others---primarily to the politicians---to find some way of resolving our common dilemmas. Countering that spontaneous grownup trend to narrowness I will do my, hopefully "childish," best to confront as many of our problems as possible by employing the longest-distance thinking of which I am capable---though that may not take us very far into the future.

- LRK -

Humanity's Option For Successoption

Applying Design Science towards humanity's success

Humanity has the option to succeed...
Civilization has been in the midst of a design revolution which is continuing to accelerate the efficiency of technological performance, resource utilization and communication. Research over the last 25 years suggests that, as a result of this trend, humanity now has the historically unprecedented option to produce a high standard of living for all people on an ecologically sustainable basis.

The existence of such a profound possibility remains largely obscured and on the outer-most fringe of public dialogue. Given humanity’s enormous impact on the Earth’s natural systems, compounded by the prospect of our population doubling within the next fifty years, well-informed debate concerning this unparalleled opportunity for comprehensive planetary success must take a place on center stage.

BFI believes that the success of the human experiment on-board Spaceship Earth depends greatly upon individuals having access to tools which empower them to see the Big Picture and take strategic action. The decisive challenge is to generate a critical mass of awareness, matched by cohesive effort, focused on implementing our option for success before it expires.

We are in the process of developing this site to be a provider of comprehensive access to resources and information relevant to humanity’s success. Our intention is to develop this site to serve an expanding global constituency actively working to solve problems both on a local and global scale. This highly decentralized audience is rapidly being connected by the Internet which has become the fastest growing medium for efficiently mobilizing grassroots support and building critical mass in specialized fields.

Welcome to the Seafriends web site for saving our seas. Become an informed conservationist by learning about our planet, oceans, land and resources, threats and what to do. Tap into our independent analyses and courage to tell the truth.

Get the most out of this web site, and read tips first. Also read search tips.
Navigate this site with our extensive sitemap or follow wat you are interested in using our big picture overview. Find recent additions in what's new.
Begin this web site from the slide show gallery autorun.htm. Is this web site a load of uninformed opinion?

Visit these important new chapters on our web site
Degradation: finally the most important chapter on this web site, explaining how marine degradation works and why we are losing so much so fast. A must-read for all who wish to understand this new and rapidly increasing threat to the coastal zone and our fisheries.
Niue: an extensive section about Niue Island, geography, history, ecology and its future with many images and a slide show on the 2005 CD.
Cyclone Heta wreaks havoc on the island nation of Niue. Why was it so powerful and destructive?
Myths11: an analysis of DoC-published monitoring results reveals the poor state of our marine reserves. The public is woefully misled by a rogue government department, serving itself with a long litany of misleading information and lies, carefully documented and rebutted by us. A must-read for community and business leaders, politicians, councillors, schools and the media.
Understanding the public statements of Dr Daniel Pauly: embarassing, naive.
Laugh and learn from the war-toons part1, cartoons illustrating issues in the marine reserves debate. War-toons2.
The war for marine reserves: the NZ Government is waging a war against its own people for little benefit in return. Only reading is believing. Many articles and the latest marine reserve proposals. The value of Seafriends to democracy is priceless.
Mimiwhangata reserve proposal the latest marine reserve proposal, revealing and embarrassing.
FAQs - frequently asked questions with honest & revealing answers - must read. Your first intro to marine conservation and myths about marine reserves.
Myths The myths and fallacies in our thinking. Environmentalists, politicians, scientists exposed. Ugly.
Conservation principles . What are the threats? What do we want to achieve? How is it done and how can it fail? Protecting a species, a spot, a habitat and more. Conservation Index.
Resource management - What are resources? How do they behave? How can they be managed sustainably? Could you do it? Manage your life?
Biodiversity - What is it? How is it threatened? What is extinction and how does nature become resilient? What are ecosystem services? Biosecurity? How does the sea differ?
Marine Conservation - benefits of marine reserves, and what they can and cannot do. How they can fail and bring false expectations.
Goat Island - NZ's first marine reserve. Learn about its history, environment, dive spots and more, with over 200 illustrations & photos.
To feed or not? Is feeding the fish inside a marine reserve bad? Learn the inside story.
Lessons from Leigh the good, the bad and the ugly about the Leigh marine reserve. Did you know?
Kermadecs - the jewel in the crown of NZ's marine reserves. Why? Where is it? What lives there and under what circumstances? Over 120 gorgeous under water photos and spotted black groupers.
Science, technology and human nature - they made our culture big, but are also driving us into disaster. Now we hope they will save us. Do we stand a chance against global threats and engrained beliefs?
Mining the sea sand. Society needs a lot of it, but can it be mined sustainably? How could it affect beaches? Sea life?
Soil is the world's most precious resource, and also the most maligned and least understood. We're losing it fast. Why? Can it feed us all? What can you do? Learn about sustainability and erosion.
Why are we losing our beaches everywhere in the world? It is not what scientists think. A must-read for action.
Oceanography or the science of how clockwork planet ticks. Can you live without knowing where you are?

Seafriends - Soil: use, sustainability and conservation

Soil is not only our most important resource, but also the most maligned and misunderstood. The world population will double in a mere forty years, but agricultural output is not keeping up with demand. In the process, precious soil is lost, waterways and coastal seas polluted. Humans obviously need to be much more knowledgeable about this problem. What is soil? Where does it come from? What kinds of soil exist? Are all soils fertile? How does soil work? Can all places on the planet be farmed? How much food can the planet make? How do we lose soil? How can we prevent erosion? What damage is caused by erosion? What is sustainability? Can soil be farmed sustainably? What can we do?



In 2001 the Arthur C. Clarke Foundation established a subsidiary organization known as the Clarke Institute for Telecommunications and Information (CITI). The purpose of this unit was to establish new international contacts around the world. In particular, CITI sought to explore how the Arthur C. Clarke Foundation could cooperate with research organizations, universities or governmental agencies so as to use science, technology or information systems to improve world conditions. CITI, in cooperation with NASA and many other organizations put on the Space Education Workshop at George Washington University in 2003 (See SPACE POLICY Fall 2004 for a detailed report on this subject) and is currently pursuing three projects in cooperation with affiliate organizations. In 2004, CITI and its projects were consolidated into the Foundation.

PROJECT WARN in Partnership with the Japan US Science Technology and Space Applications Program (JUSTSAP)

The purpose of Project Warn is combine enhanced communications and IT systems to provide warning of impending natural or man-made disasters and to provide on-going communications and remote sensing and GIS support during disaster relief operations. The Clarke Foundation is working with the Pacific Disaster Center, the Asian Disaster Mitigation Organization, the United Nations, and the US and Japanese Governments as coordinated through the JUSTSAP organization to carry out a suitable test and demonstration in this area. In particular a simulation and test is being planned in the Pacific Region in 2005 to determine to how to use the latest information and sensing technology more effectively in the advent of that a major Tsunami might impact an Asian country or island. Clarke Foundation personnel are providing technical advice and support on a volunteer basis to this project.

THE MILLENNIUM VILLAGE PROJECT in partnership with the Arthur C. Clarke Institute for Modern Technologies in Sri Lanka and the Solar Electric Light Fund

The concept of the Millennium Village is to provide a new and innovative approach to the use of modern technology in order to solve rural and remote needs in isolated areas. The specific idea developed by Dr. Joseph N. Pelton of the Clarke Foundation in partnership with Dr. Robert Freling of the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF) is to combine tele-education, tele-health, renewable solar energy, modern telecommunications and IT systems with economic development and job training so that an integrated and sustainable approach can be taken to rural development. A trial project is being developed in partnership with the Arthur C. Clarke Institute for Modern Technology in Moratuwa, Sri Lanka with funding support being sought through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). A revised proposal is being developed in response to JICA guidelines. Clarke Foundation personnel are providing advice on this project and seeking donation of key equipment.


The advent of broadband communications systems via fiber optic, satellite and wireless terrestrial technology is now allowing for the possibility of education and health care systems to be delivered around the world at affordable cost. The most difficult challenge is accessing the right educational materials or health care providers, but low cost communications systems that can be connected to the most isolated regions is also a key part of the equation since 2 billion people live in areas that are not connected to modern communications systems. The Clarke Foundation is working with the Global University System to make policy leaders around the world aware of the needs and how new technology can assist in the provision of rural services. A book dedicated to this purpose has just been published by UNESCO with Clarke Foundation members contributing to the writing and production of this global analysis. A workshop that would bring together key policy and technical leaders is seen as the next step forward. For more information on this subject one should go to the web site of the Global University System.

Information from Sir Arthur on Local Relief Efforts and Charities in Sri Lanka listed below


Members of the Arthur C. Clarke Foundation and family members in the United Kingdom have been in direct touch with Sir Arthur today for additional information. Sir Arthur and his staff report that assistance and aid remains desparately needed in the region; calls and letters are being referred to the organizations listed below. Please help if you can.


From Sir Arthur:

Thank you for your concern about my safety in the wake of last Sunday’s devastating tidal wave.

I am enormously relieved that my family and household have escaped the ravages of the sea that suddenly invaded most parts of coastal Sri Lanka, leaving a trail of destruction.

But many others were not so fortunate. My heart-felt sympathy goes out to all those who lost family members or friends.

Our staff members are all safe, even though some are badly shaken and relate harrowing first hand accounts of what happened. Most of our diving equipment and boats at Hikkaduwa were washed away. We still don't know the full extent of damage -- it will take a while for us to take stock as accessing these areas is still difficult.

We are encouraging concerned friends to contribute to the relief efforts launched by various national and international organisations. If you wish to join these efforts, I can recommend two options:

- Contribute to a Sri Lanka disaster relief fund launched by an internationally operating humanitarian charity, such as Care* or Oxfam*

- Alternatively, considering supporting Sarvodaya, the largest development charity in Sri Lanka, which has a 45-year track record in reaching out and helping the poorest of the poor. Sarvodaya has mounted a well organised, countrywide relief effort using their countrywide network of offices and volunteers who work in all parts of the country, well above ethnic and other divisions. Their website,

provides bank account details for financial donations. They also welcome contributions in kind -- a list of urgently needed items is found at:

There is much to be done in both short and long terms for Sri Lanka to raise its head from this blow from the seas. Among other things, the country needs to improve its technical and communications facilities so that effective early warnings can help minimise losses in future disasters.

Arthur Clarke
29 December 2004

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Apollo 11-The entire audio (PRO Broadcast)
by apollo_11_oda from Foster City, CA

Broadcaster Comments
Apollo 11 is man's first mission to another world in July, 1969. This broadcast contains the entire sweep of the mission's air-to-ground audio taken from the "PAO Loop", starting at 3 hours before launch, through splashdown 8 days later.

Moon and Mars - Videos